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Sickle Cell

Sickle Cell Anemia Treatment in India with Bone Marrow Transplant

Are you concerned about your child’s sickle cell anemia and the pain she undergoes despite taking medicines for her disease? 

Your worry ends now. 

With the advancement of technologies, Sickle cell diseases are now curable with advanced bone marrow transplants. A few decades ago, Sickle cell disease was an illness that used to last for a lifetime. 

Sickle Cell Anemia Treatment in India can decrease symptoms and prolong life. A bone marrow transplant has come as a new ray of light and is the only cure for sickle cell disease.

Before moving forward, Let’s first understand what sickle cell anemia is.

Sickle cell anemia treatment in India

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What is Sickle Cell Anemia?

Sickle Cell Anemia is a genetic blood disorder where there are inadequate normal types of red blood cells that are necessary to deliver oxygen in the body. People with sickle cell disease have abnormal protein in their red blood cells. 

Let us know how red blood cells in sickle cell anemia become deformed and live for less time as compared to normal blood cells. 

The shape of the cell becomes deformed in sickle cell anemia, becoming stiff and crescent-shaped (or sickle-shaped). The sickle-shaped red blood cells easily break apart, causing anemia. That is the reason sickle blood cells cannot function appropriately and suffer premature death (they live only 10-20 days instead of the standard 120 days).

Around 5% of the global population has trait genes for hemoglobin disorders, primarily sickle-cell disease and thalassemia. Every year, over 300,000 babies are born with sickle cell anemia. In Africa, sickle-cell disease is the most common.

What is Sickle cell anemia

What are the different types of Sickle Cell Disease?

Hemoglobin is the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. It usually consists of two alpha and two beta chains. 

Different mutations in these genes cause the four main types of sickle cell anemia:

Hemoglobin SS disease is the most common form of sickle cell disease. You get it when you receive a copy of the hemoglobin S gene from each parent (Hb SS). People with this severe type of SCD also have the most severe symptoms.

The second most common type of sickle cell disease is hemoglobin SC disease. When you inherit the Hb C gene from one parent and the Hb S gene from the other, you get this condition. Hb SC patients have symptoms that are similar to Hb SS patients. The anemia, on the other hand, is not as severe.

The production of beta-globin genes is affected by hemoglobin SB+ (beta) thalassemia. As there is less beta protein production, the size of the red blood cell shrinks. Hemoglobin S beta-thalassemia is caused by inheriting the Hb S gene. The symptoms aren’t as bad.

The fourth type of sickle cell disease is sickle beta-zero thalassemia. The beta-globin gene is also involved in the disease development. It has symptoms that are similar to Hb SS anemia. The symptoms of beta zero thalassemias can, however, be more severe at times. It has been linked to a worse prognosis.

These types of sickle cell disease are uncommon, and their symptoms are usually mild.

Sickle cell anemia treatment in India

What is Sickle Cell Trait (SCT)?

SCT patients inherit one sickle cell gene (“S”) and one normal gene (“A”) from one parent and one sickle cell gene (“S”) from the other. This is referred to as the sickle cell trait (SCT). They usually do not show any signs of the disease, and lead normal lives, but they can pass down the trait to their children.

What are the signs and symptoms of Sickle Cell Anemia?

The indication of sickle cell disease is not evident until the child is four months or older. Early symptoms of sickle cell disease include inflammation of the hands and feet; anemia symptoms, including exhaustion or severe fatigue; and jaundice.

Over time, sickle cell disease can cause complications like illnesses, delayed development, and pain episodes, called pain crises. Most kids with sickle cell disease are pain-free in between crises. In cases of youth and adults, there can be chronic, continued pain. Over a lifetime, the spleen, brain, eyes, lungs, liver, heart, kidneys, penis, joints, bones, or skin can be affected by sickle cell disease.

Sickle cell disease can be easily diagnosed by a blood test. The blood test will reveal whether you have sickle cell disease or sickle cell traits. This will help to plan for further treatment protocol.

signs and symptoms of sickle cell anemia,