Cancer is a result of uncontrolled and rapid cell growth in the body. This is either because of exposure to cancerous substances or due to inherited genetic mutation. Cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally, however, there is a gradual improvement in the success rate of cancer treatment owing to growing awareness, technological advancements and innovations.
The field of medicine that deals with research, identification and treatment of cancer are known as oncology. Surgical oncology is an area of cancer care that focuses on the diagnosis, phase and treatment of cancer by surgery. Surgical oncologists can also conduct palliative surgery to help alleviate pain, improve the comfort level of a patient, and manage the symptoms and side effects associated with cancer. Whether a patient is a candidate for surgery depends on factors such as tumour type, site, size and stage of cancer as well as patient’s health concerns like age, physical fitness and other medical conditions.
The best cancer care hospitals in India have an interdisciplinary group of surgeons, anaesthesiologists, nutritionists, counsellors, nurses and other professionals working together under one roof to provide result-oriented treatment
Depending on the type of cancer, the size and location of the tumour, surgery can take place using minimally invasive techniques such as laparoscopy or robotic surgery. Certain conditions can require more extensive open surgery with wider incisions. A surgical oncologist can work with other physicians and clinicians to help reduce pain and other side effects from surgery and speed recovery.
At times, surgery is used together with other therapies for many patients. Chemotherapy, genetic, behavioural or immune therapy, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy may be included. Other procedures may also be used, such as those used in interventional specialities.
Types of cancer treated in India
Cancer is a wide term for a large group of diseases caused by rapidly dividing and spreading abnormal cells to other tissues and organs. Cancers are named for the place they originate in and the type of cell they are made of, even though they spread to other parts of the body. For example, lung cancer is still called lung cancer, which starts in the lungs and spreads to the liver. Here is a list of commonly noticed cancer types:
Blood cancers affect blood cell development and function. Most of these cancers begin in the bone marrow where the blood is formed. Blood cancer has three major types: leukaemia, lymphoma, and myeloma. These cancers cause your bone marrow and lymphatic system to produce blood cells that do not function as well as they should. They all affect various types of white blood cells and act differently. Blood cancer can be effectively treated by bone marrow transplantation.
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Cancer that is formed in the liver cells is termed as liver cancer. Cancer spreading to the liver is more common than cancer which begins in the cells of the liver. Cancer that starts in another area of the body — like the colon, lung, or breast — and then spreads to the liver is called metastatic cancer instead of liver cancer.
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Colon cancer is cancer that starts in the large intestine (colon). The colon is the end of the digestive tract. Colon cancer can be treated effectively by many medications available, including surgery, radiation therapy and drug therapies, such as chemotherapy, laser therapy and immunotherapy. Colon cancer is sometimes referred to as colorectal cancer, a concept that combines colon cancer with rectal cancer which occurs in the rectum. To read more about colon cancer and colon cancer treatment in India, click here
Lung cancer is a disease which uncontrollably causes cells to divide in the lungs, triggering tumour growth which decreases an individual’s breathing capacity. Nevertheless, it may be difficult to identify lung cancer at its earliest stages, as the symptoms may be close to those of a respiratory infection, or there may be no symptoms at all. Detecting early lung cancer can prove life-saving. This is because lung cancer cells can migrate to other parts of the body before they are found in the lungs by a physician. Lung cancer therapies depend on the location and stage of the care, as well as the individual’s overall health. The most popular approach to treating lung cancer is surgery and radiation, but other therapies are available. For more information on lung cancer treatment in India, click here
Breast cancer is when the cell in the breast grow uncontrollably. Typically, breast cancer cells form a tumour that is often seen on an x-ray and feels like a lump. Breast cancer occurs almost exclusively in women, but also in men. Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) like lumpectomy or segmental mastectomy have proven better results and much more successful outcome. The biggest advantage of BCS is that the women can retain their breasts however, radiation therapy will also be required for complete cure. For more information on breast cancer treatment in India, click here
The uterine cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb) of a female that connects the uterus to the vagina. Cervical cancer develops when the cervix cells multiply abnormally and invade the body’s other tissues and organs. Operation and radiation therapy are the most commonly used therapies for cervical cancer treatment. There are also situations when radiation and biological treatment is used. For more detailed information on cervical cancer treatment in India, click here
Prostate cancer is characterized by uncontrolled (malignant) cell growth in the prostate gland. During the early stages of prostate cancer, there are often no signs, but PSA testing can detect changes that may indicate cancer. Prostate cancer can be effectively treated by robotic prostatectomy, cryotherapy, radiation therapy, etc. For more details on prostate cancer treatment in India, click here
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