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Burn Injury

Stem cell therapy for burn injury treatment in India

How can burn injury thrash your future dreams and plans? 

Sahil, a 32-year-old man from Palghar, works as an engineer in a chemical factory. He is recently married and enjoying his new life with a new family full of future dreams, including his own house, own car, and wishes to live in his own house along with his beautiful family and parents. He has a plan to have his factory. His family well supports him for his dreams. He loves to visit new places with his family and friends.

One usual day at work, an accident happened, and due to an electrical fault, the factory caught fire. The fire got terrible when it reached the storehouse where chemicals were stored. The flammable chemicals converted the small fire into a sudden blast of fireballs. Sahil, who was trying to dodge the minor fire, originated from electrical wires with fire extinguishers. However, when the chemicals caught fire, he got trapped in fir along with his six colleagues. 

The fire brigade came within 10 minutes of the storeroom fire and controlled the situation in the next hour. 

Sahil and other workers were immediately rushed to the nearby hospital. After the first aid, the nearby hospital suggested immediately shifting them to Mumbai as the injuries were deep and bad.

Sahil suffered from 90% Grade 2 to early Grade 3 burns, which meant that his skin (epidermis) and the layer immediately beneath the skin (dermis) were involved. Sahil’s burning sensation kept increasing, and he had severe pain all over the body.  Blisters were developing in all burnt parts, and he also had swelling. He was unable to walk or move his hands. His body had a charred black look.

burn injury treatment
burn injury treatment

On the way to Mumbai, Sahil’s office contacted MedicoExperts and asked for immediate help where he can be cured in the best possible way.

The MedicoExperts team spoke to the owner of the factory and Sahils’s family and explained both the conventional treatment and the stem cell treatment. The family immediately took the call favoring Stem cells where the healing would be faster and new skin would start coming naturally.

He was admitted to one of the Stem cell hospitals in Mumbai, and the treatment started. 

Sahil was genuinely pleased when he saw the results of treatment within 2-3 days. Superficial burns started drying, and the most important change was the reduction in a burning sensation. Pain and swelling also started reducing. As the week progressed, he could move his hands and legs, and by the 3rd week, the initial healing of most wounds was complete.

The doctor recommended physiotherapy, and the physiotherapist taught him the rehabilitation exercises which he was asked to continue until complete healing of all the wounds. This helped him a lot in regaining the full range of movements in his joints. All his wounds healed completely by a month, and he could see new healthy skin forming.

After three months, Sahil’s burn areas became normal with a minor scar. He also joined his office back and started working towards his dreams.

Before understanding the treatment, let first understand the burn injury itself.

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What is Burn Injury?

The most common damage caused by a burn is to the skin’s layers. Deeper burns can cause tissue (fat and muscle) and even bone damage.

Burn treatment is determined by the location and severity of the injury. Burns that are deep or widespread require immediate medical attention. Some people will require treatment at specialized burn centers as well as months of follow-up.

When skin tissue is damaged by heat, chemicals, sunlight, electricity, or radiation, it is called a burn. The majority of burns are accidental. Burns appeared in a range of degrees. The seriousness (degree) of a burn is determined by the depth of the burn and the amount of skin that has been affected. Burns can be terribly painful. A burn that is not treated can become infected.

burn injury treatment

What are the types and degrees of Burn injury?

Depending on the depth of the skin damage, the severity of the burn symptoms differs. The signs and symptoms of a severe burn can take a day or two to appear.

1st-degree burn: Only the outer layer of the skin (epidermis) is affected by this minor burn. It may lead to pain and redness.

2nd-degree burn: This type of burn affects the epidermis and the second layer (dermis) of the skin. Swelling and red, white, or splotchy skin are possible side effects. Blisters can form, and the pain can be extremely painful. Deep second-degree burns can cause scarring.

3rd-degree burn: The fat layer beneath the skin is reached by this burn. Areas that have been burned can be black, brown, or white. The skin may appear to be leathery. Nerves can be destroyed in third-degree burns, resulting in numbness.

4th-degree burns are also possible. All third-degree burn symptoms and tendons and bones are included in this type of burn.

What causes Burn Injury?

Burns are caused by:

  • Fire
  • Hot liquid or steam
  • Hot metal, glass, or other objects
  • Electrical currents
  • Radiation, such as that from X-rays
  • UV radiation from the sun or other sources, such as a tanning bed
  • Chemicals like strong acids, lye, paint thinner, or gasoline
  • Abuse
symptoms of burn injuries

What are the signs and symptoms of burn injuries?

The severity or degree of the burn determines the symptoms. Symptoms are quite often worse during the first few hours or days after the burn. Symptoms of a burn include:

  • Blisters
  • Pain
  • Inflammation
  • Swelling
  • White or charred (black) skin
  • Skin that is dry and peeling

Now let’s understand the conventional burn injury treatment.

Conventional burn injury treatment

First-degree burns: Burns of the first degree are usually treated at home. The sooner you treat the burn, the faster it will heal. The following are treatments for a first-degree burn:

  • Soak the wound in cool water for at least five minutes.
  • For pain relief, take acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
  • To soothe the skin, mix lidocaine (anesthetic) with aloe vera gel or cream.
  • To protect the affected area, apply antibiotic ointment and loose gauze.

Second-degree burns: Second-degree burns are more serious than first-degree burns because the damage extends beyond the skin’s top layer. The skin blisters and becomes extremely red and sore as a result of this type of burn.

Some blisters pop open, resulting in a wet or weeping appearance to the burn. Fibrinous exudate, a thick, soft, scab-like tissue, may form over the wound over time.

Because of the delicate nature of these wounds, it is necessary to keep the area clean and bandaged correctly to avoid infection. This also aids in the faster healing of the burn.

The following are common treatments for a mild second-degree burn:

  • Running the skin under cool water for 15 minutes or longer
  • Using an over-the-counter pain reliever (acetaminophen or ibuprofen)
  • Applying antibiotic cream to blisters

If the burn is severe and covers a large area, seek medical help right away.

It can take up to three weeks for some second-degree burns to heal.

Third-degree burns: The most severe burns are third-degree burns. They are the most damaging, causing damage to all layers of the skin.

Without surgery, these wounds heal with severe scarring and contracture. For third-degree burns, there is no set timeframe for complete spontaneous healing.

Never try to treat a third-degree burn on your own. Please contact the hospital as soon as possible. Raise the injury above your heart while you wait for medical attention. If you don’t want to undress, make sure no clothing is stuck to the burn.

Advance options for burn injury treatment in India

Stem Cells for burn wounds healings

In the healing of wounds, stem cells have proven to be very effective and promising. Topical application (body surfaces), local injection, intravenous or systemic injection, and dermal or carrier application are some methods for using stem cells in burn wound healing. Several studies have shown that stem cells can help wounds heal faster and more effectively.

Because of its proliferative effect( the rapid growth or production of cells by multiplication) on keratinocytes (the primary type of cell found in the epidermis), stem cell therapy for wound healing has proven more effective. Furthermore, keratinocyte growth factor-1 (KGF-1) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) were involved in stem cell effects.

Furthermore, stem cells do not permanently integrate into the tissue, asserting that their effect is due to released factors rather than direct interaction. Wound healing has also been done with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

stemcell for burn injuries
stemcell for wound healing

Physiology of burn wound healing

In the case of burns, stem cells help to promote wound healing. In terms of physiology, stem cells aid in the recovery of burn wounds. As a result, in burn patients, an increased level of bone marrow produces endothelial progenitor cells. The intensity of the burn is proportional to these levels. Amnion creates a cellular cytokine solution that focuses on the role of cytokines (small secreted proteins released by cells) in burn wound healing. The amnion makes multipotent progenitor cells that harvest cytokines and use them to heal burn wounds. 

Compared to controls, the epithelialization of burn wounds and the appearance of hair growth improve significantly with cellular cytokine solution. Stem cells play an essential role in burn wound healing by producing bioactive peptides like thymosin four and others.

In bleomycin-treated skin, mesenchymal stem cells stimulate the formation of a basket weave organization of collagen, just like normal skin. The skin was treated with stem cells, which reduced myofibroblast markers(α-smooth muscle actin (human gene = ACTA2)) and down-regulated type I collagen, resulting in a reduction in the fibrosis that could have occurred. The ability of stem cells to reduce bleomycin-induced fibrosis could be applied to burn wounds to reduce fibrosis and improve healing while reducing scar formation. It activates G-protein-coupled receptors with leucine-rich repeats, markers of adult epithelial stem cells in both the skin and the intestine.

Different types of growth factors, receptors, and cytokines are involved in the healing of burn wounds. These factors are linked to stem cell homing, differentiation, and proliferation, resulting in a better and faster healing process when applied to burn wounds.

HBOT for burn wound treatment

HBOT is most commonly used for second and third-degree burns as a therapeutic treatment. The initial thermal injury in third-degree burns is followed by circumferential, widening tissue loss, which means that the surrounding tissue of the burn is also damaged because the burn has destroyed the blood vessels. When blood vessels are destroyed, downstream blood flow from the burn site is halted, causing more tissue death due to oxygen deprivation.

HBOT, given within the first 48 to 72 hours after a thermal injury, increases the body’s oxygen levels by up to 12 times that of breathing air at sea level. By supplying the body with additional oxygen, can mitigate ischemia-reperfusion injury and the possibility of advanced tissue destruction beyond the initial area of thermal injury, bringing the damaged area “back to life.” This informs the body that the tissue is no longer a foreign invader, allowing normal wound-healing processes to resume.

HBOT continues to promote new tissue growth after 72 hours, which promotes healing by assisting in the formation of new blood vessels, producing fibroblasts responsible for collagen production. HBOT also reduces inflammation in the body, which would otherwise slow down the healing process. Finally, HBOT helps to prevent infection because white blood cells use oxygen to kill bacteria.

Cost of Sickle Cell Anemia Treatment in India

Cost of stem cell therapy with HBOT for burn injury

India has the most affordable places for Stem Cell treatment across the globe. We certainly understand that if you have chosen to travel overseas for Stem Cell treatment, you are indeed looking for cost-effectiveness. When you speak about the best, MedicoExperts is the name you can trust on.

Modern technology, State of the art hospitals, experts, specialists, excellent infrastructure at par with international standards, no language barrier, personalized attention, safe surgery, and seamless travel are some of the zeniths that magnetize individuals worldwide to get their Stem Cell treatment in India done through us.

The patient must stay for 12-15 days; however, 45 days of stay is recommended in some cases. The approximate cost of Stem Cell Treatment would range between USD 2000 to USD 10000 per cycle, depending on the patient’s current condition. Hyperbaric treatment’s average cost is between 50-90 USD per session, each of 60-90 minutes for 25-30 days daily.

Success rates of stem cell therapy for burn injury in India

Regardless of the stem cell transplant method, burn area, or treatment method, stem cell therapy significantly improved the burn healing rate (SMD 3.06, 95 percent CI 1.98 to 4.14).

Frequently Asked Questions and patient concerns:

1. How does stem cell therapy for burn injury help?

The aim of stem cell therapy for burn wound healing is to completely rebuild and restore the original structure and functionality of the skin while minimizing complications such as hypertrophic scarring and contracture.

One of the ways this can be done is by increasing the skin’s natural healing mechanism using the stem cells’ regenerative potential.

In addition, they have been shown to facilitate faster burn wound healing and angiogenesis, along with improved granulation and hair follicle and sebaceous gland development.

2. What are the treatment options for a burn injury?

The treatment of wounds can vary from the application of ointments for mild burns to debridement and skin grafts of severe burns, depending on the severity of the burn. For the treatment of second-and third-degree burns affecting more than 18% of the body surface area, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) may also be recommended.

You may also use hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) to improve your burn pain management, in addition to any skin grafting or other external treatments your burn wound requires. One of the only therapies available to enhance the internal responses of your body to burn injuries is HBOT.

3. How many sessions will I need?

You’ll need more than one session to benefit from hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Your medical condition is contingent on the number of sessions. Some patients could also need several sessions, depending on the degree of the burn injury.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is typically part of a comprehensive care plan supplied with other medications and medicines tailored to meet the particular needs to treat approved medical conditions efficiently.

4. What happens after the HBOT session is complete?

The medical team will assess you by looking in your ears and taking your blood pressure and pulse. If you have diabetes, your blood glucose is checked. Once the team decides you are ready, you can get dressed and leave. You may feel somewhat tired, light-headed, or hungry following your treatment.

However, these symptoms will usually go away after a short period and should not hinder your routine activities.

5. How long does a treatment last?

A typical treatment generally lasts a bit over two hours. Of course, treatments can sometimes take longer, especially if patients have difficulty clearing their ears during the pressurization phase.

6. What is the current status of Stem cell therapy from the regulatory framework?

The stem cell-based therapy is in the research phase and not yet formally approved by ICMR. However, the application of stem cells, popularly known as bone marrow transplants, in blood-related disorders is approved by ICMR.

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