Organ Transplantation is a medical procedure in which a failing or damaged organ is removed from patient’s body and replaced with a functioning one. The donated organ may be from a living donor or a deceased donor. In rare cases animal organ or artificial organ is also used.
Organs that have been successfully transplanted include the heart, kidneys, brain, lungs, pancreas, intestine, and thymus. Organ transplantation is often the only treatment for end stage organ failure, such as kidney failure, liver and heart failure.
Organ transplantation is often lifesaving and gives the recipient a wonderful new lease of life.It is also a major surgery that carries potential risks, such as the chances of organ rejection. That is why one needs to gather as much information as possible on organ transplants, before deciding to go for it.
Different types of transplantations are listed below:
Kidney transplantation is a surgical procedure that’s done to treat kidney failure. The kidneys filter waste from the blood and remove it from the body through urine. They also help maintain body’s fluid and electrolyte balance. If kidneys stop working, waste builds up in body and result in various issues.
People whose kidneys have failed usually undergo dialysis, which mechanically filters waste that builds up in the bloodstream when the kidneys stop working. In this procedure, one or both kidneys are replaced with donor kidneys from a live or deceased person. It is one of the most common types of transplants that take place.
In Liver transplant patient’s diseased liver is replaced with a healthy liver graft from a donor. Donor liver graft can be obtained from deceased donors, or a family member may choose to donate a portion of his liver to the patient.
In heart transplantation a healthy heart from a donor who has suffered brain death is used to replace a patient’s damaged or diseased heart.
Due to the complexity of this procedure, strict medical criteria is imposed in assessing whether a donor’s heart is suitable for transplant, and whether a potential recipient is suitable to receive the transplant.
In Lung Transplantation One lung or both lungs from a recently deceased donor are used to replace a patient’s diseased lung or lungs.
This type of transplant is commonly done on type 1 diabetic patients whose pancreas doesn’t work properly.
In Cornea Transplant damaged or cloudy cornea can be replaced surgically with a healthy, normal cornea, donated by another individual. It helps restoring vision to those blinded by corneal disease.
Transplantation of Human Organs Act (THO) passed in 1994, is the primary legislation related to organ donation and transplantation in India. This Act is aimed at regulation of removal, storage and transplantation of human organs for therapeutic purposes and to prevent commercial dealings in human organs.
The amendment to the Act was passed by the parliament in 2011, and the rules were notified in 2014.
The essence of this legislation are :
The main provisions of the Act (including the amendments and rules of 2014) are as follows:
|S No.||Name of Procedure||Cost in India (USD)|
|1||Kidney Transplantation||14000 - 15000|
|2||Liver Transplantation||35000 - 37000|
|3||Heart Transplantation||65000 - 70000|
|4||Lung Transplantation||57000 - 60000|
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1. How are organs from deceased donors distributed?
Generally, donated organs are matched with individuals on an organ waiting list. Matching is based on a variety of factors including blood and tissue types, medical need, length of time on the waiting list and weight of donor and recipient.
2. How long does the donor remain hospitalized?
After their surgery, the donor will typically remain in the hospital for four to seven days.
3. How long before the liver donor is fully recovered?
On average, most donors are fully recovered after three to six weeks. However, every donor’s recovery time is different.
4. Does becoming an organ donor mean that I won’t be eligible to receive the best medical care possible?
Your decision to donate an organ has no effect on the quality of medical care you can receive.
5. How long before the living donor recipient is fully recovered?
On average, most recipients are fully recovered after 3 to 6 months. However, this will depend on the severity of their condition, their age, and their general health.
6. What kind of lifestyle changes do you need to make after organ donation?
The only other lifestyle change we encourage is for transplant patients not to be involved in contact sports. We recommend that you stay active, avoid smoking and alcohol, and stick to a healthy diet.
7. Who can be the donor for transplantation?
There are two sources: cadaveric and living donors.
Cadaveric donors are individuals whose organs have been made available after brain death. As few cadaveric donations take place in India, living related liver transplantation is the only feasible option in our country. For living related transplants, a relative (usually parents) with a compatible blood type donates a portion of their liver to the child. Fortunately, the liver of the donor is able to grow back to full size in 812 weeks.
Living liver donors should be healthy adults, with a near normal body mass index (not obese) who have the ability to understand the procedure. The donor should have no medical, emotional, or psychological condition that could potentially increase the risk of this surgery.
8. What are the risks of transplant surgery?
There are risks with transplant surgery just as with any major surgery. Some immediate complications can include bleeding and blood clotting problems, respiratory problems and malfunction of the donor liver. Long term complications include rejection (when the child's immune system does not accept the new liver) and infection. Fortunately, most of these complications are treatable.